The establishment of road safety targets requires that safety performance be monitored over time. Governments and funding agencies can also benefit from evaluating the road safety impacts of their investments.
In countries where reliable crash data is available, Risk Mapping has been used to compare crash rates over time. These countries include Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Safety performance indicators also provide an effective means of monitoring performance. Measures such as helmet and seat belt wearing rates have been used effectively in assessing road safety behaviour, as have speed measurements and conflict studies, and iRAP Star Ratings provide a set of safety performance indicators for road infrastructure.
In New Zealand, KiwiRAP Star Ratings are included in weekly road death reports to the Minister for Transport. By combining this with information about behaviour-related issues such as seat belt wearing and speeding and Australasian NCAP Star Ratings for cars, the Minister is able to gain a balanced view of the factors that influenced each death.
In Malaysia, the road authority (JKR) used Star Ratings to rapidly estimate the change in infrastructure-related risk as a result of improvements at several high-risk sites under the black spot program (see below).